KZN African National Congress
Founded on 8 January 1912 by John Langalibalele Dube in Bloemfontein as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC), its primary mission was to bring all Africans together as one people, to defend their rights and freedoms. This included giving full voting rights to black South Africans and mixed-race South Africans and, from 1948 onwards, to end the system of apartheid introduced by the Nationalist Party government after their election (by White voters only) in that year.
The ANC originally attempted to use non-violent protests to end apartheid; however, the Sharpeville massacre in March 1960, in which 69 black Africans were shot and killed by police and hundreds wounded during a peaceful protest, contributed to deteriorating relations with the South African government. On 8 April 1960, the administration of Charles Robberts Swart banned the ANC in South Africa. After the ban, the ANC formed the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) to fight against apartheid utilising guerrilla warfare and sabotage.